Electricity is a term that refers to a group of physical phenomena that are linked to the presence and mobility of matter with an electric charge. According to Maxwell’s equations, electricity and magnetism are both components of electromagnetic phenomena. Electricity is responsible for lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges, and many other familiar occurrences. The presence of an electric charge, which can be positive or negative, creates an electric field. A magnetic field is created by the movement of electric charges, which is known as an electric current. The electric field would be working just on electric charge if it moved. As a result, we may talk about electric potential at a certain place in space, which is equal to the work done by an external agent in transporting a unit of positive charge.
Electricity is employed in a variety of modern technologies, including: When electric current is utilised to power equipment, it is referred to as electric power. Electronics is the study of active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits, as well as the passive connecting technologies that go with them. Electrical phenomena have indeed been researched since antiquity, although theoretical progress was slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Electrical technology’s fast advancement during the period altered industry and society, propelling the Second Industrial Revolution forward. Electricity’s incredible adaptability allows it to be used in an almost infinite number of applications, including transportation, heating, lighting, communications, and calculation. The backbone of modern industrial life is now electrical electricity.
The presence of charge results in an electrostatic force, in which charges exert a force on one another, an effect that has been recognised since antiquity but is still not completely known. Touching a light ball strung from a string with a glass rod that has been charged by rubbing with a cloth can charge it. When an identical ball is charged with the same glass rod, it repels the first: the charge operates to separate the two balls. Two balls charged with a rubbing amber rod resist each other. When one ball is electrified by a glass rod another by an amber rod, then two balls are attracted to each other. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb researched these occurrences in the late eighteenth century, concluding that charge presents itself in two opposing forms. This finding gave rise to the well-known principle that like-charged items repel one other and opposite-charged objects attract each other.
Charge has a tendency to spread itself as evenly as possible over a conducting surface since the force operates on the charged particles themselves. Coulomb’s law, which connects the force to the product of the charges and has an inverse-square relationship with the distance between them, determines the magnitude of the electromagnetic force, whether attractive or repulsive. The electromagnetic force is extremely powerful, second only to the strong interaction in terms of strength, but unlike the strong interaction, it functions at all distances. The electromagnetic force pushing two electrons apart is 1042 times stronger than the gravitational attraction drawing them together, in compared to the considerably weaker gravitational force.
Charge is carried by some subatomic particles, the most well-known of which being the electron & proton. The electromagnetic force, was one of nature’s four basic forces, is created by and interacts with electric charge. Charge has been proved to be a conserved quantity in experiments, which means that the charge density in an electrically isolated system always will remain constant regardless of any changes inside that system. Charge can be transmitted between bodies in the system through direct touch or by travelling through a conducting substance like a wire. Static electricity is the net presence (or ‘imbalance’) of charge on a body, which is typically caused when dissimilar materials rub together, transferring charge from one to the other. Because the charge on electrons and protons has the same sign, a charge can be expressed as either negative or positive. Electrons have a negative charge, while protons have a positive charge, according to tradition, which dates back to Benjamin Franklin’s work.
The quantity of charge is commonly denoted by the letter Q and measured in coulombs; each electron has a charge of around −1.6022×10−19 coulomb. The proton has an equal and opposite charge, making it +1.6022×10−19 coulomb. Antimatter, like matter, has a charge, with each antiparticle having an equal and opposite charge to its counterpart particle. The gold-leaf electroscope, which is still used for classroom presentations but has been overtaken by the electronic electrometer, is one of the earliest instruments for measuring charge.
Now, solve this related question: A polythene piece rubbed with wool is found to have negative charge of 3 xx 10^-7 C. Estimate the number of electrons transferred?